Evaluation and Social Support (SESS) measure
The SESS interview was designed to measure psychological and social
vulnerability. It was tested in the prospective Islington study prior
to depression occurring. In the SESS interview various contemporary
assessments were made of the quality of the marital relationship,
the parenting role, work and housework role and external arena as
well as support from Very Close others. Reliable use of the measure
occurred after training with inter-rater reliability on most scales
over 0.80. Regular rating meetings were held to ensure reliability
indices were determined in the analysis as best predictors of subsequent
onset of major depression involving negative relationships and negative
evaluation of self.
Elements in Close Relationships (NECR)' index involved high
negative interaction with children (involving discord, criticism,
tension), similar high negative interaction for women living with
a partner and the absence of any close confidant for a single woman.
Evaluation of Self was an index based on three scales: negative
evaluation of personal attributes (such as attractiveness or intelligence),
negative evaluation of competence in roles (for example as a mother
or friend) or self-rejection (a more global assessment of self-dislike).
These three scales were highly correlated but a high rating on any
one would count as 'negative evaluation of self' (NES).
has led to the development of additional measures. The Attachment
Style Interview utilises both the marital and support section, but
this in addition to attitudinal scales of avoidance or anxious attachment
in relationships (see ASI). It has also led to the development of
the Parenting interview which assesses both competence in parenting
role from the SESS but also retrospective measures of pregnancy experience
and more detailed parenting measures of care and control of children.
Vulnerability to Depression Questionnaire (VDQ) is a self-report
instrument validated against the SESS interview to measure the vulnerability
indices of negative elements in close relationships and negative evaluation
of self. It shows high reliability and is predictive of depression
O'Connor, P., & Brown, G. W. (1984). Supportive relationships:
fact or fancy? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,
Brown, G. W., Andrews, B., Bifulco, A. T., & Veiel, H.
O. (1990). Self esteem and depression: I. Measurement issues
and prediction of onset. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric
Epidemiology, 25, 200-209.
Brown, G. W., Bifulco, A. T., Veiel, H. O., & Andrews,
B. (1990). Self-esteem and depression: II. Social correlates
of self-esteem. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
|Five hundred people recall
their life story… all kept in one collection
childhood and of adult life: adversity, support relationships ...
Reports of coping style,
psychological disorders ...